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Soil and Geology
The environmental impact of all works regarding excavations and trenches involves, besides landscape problems, also aeromechanical stability problems of the ground, which could get even worse if the mining activity stops and a proper mould is not provided.
The removal of natural barriers can cause ground changes (in the structure and texture, permeability, etc.) and disarrangement or, in general, the increase of dangers for the natural environment and the anthropic community, modifying the morphology of the sites.
Moreover, a process of quick erosion begins eliminating the vegetation and modifying artificially the slope and the ground characteristics; in this way the corroded material is transported in the surface waters, causing water pollution.
In order to evaluate the soil impact of a quarry, the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic characteristics of the site and the surrounding area must be considered.
The following factors should be taken into account for a correct evaluation of the soil impact:
- The nature of the geologic sub layer (lithological, stratigraphical and tectonics characteristics of the rock) and its main geotechnical properties;
- The elevation and the geomorphologic aspects of the ground in order to calculate the width and the height of the terraces according to the stability;
- The vegetation coverage and the anthropic activities eventually present;
- The presence of ground waters;
- The thermo pluviometrical values useful to define the climatic factor influencing the mould of the ground, both directly, through the accumulation and demolition, and indirectly, through the formation of the vegetation coverage.
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